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Oceania

AD 300
c. 300 Beginning of early eastern Polynesian culture



AD 500
500s Polynesians, originally from Southeast Asia, settle in Hawaiian Islands and Easter Island
500s Polynesians continue to navigate eastwards



AD 700
c. 700 Easter Islanders begin to build stone platforms which form part of ceremonial enclosures
c. 700 First Polynesians settle in the Cook Islands



AD 900
NEW NATIONS
c. 900 First settlers from the Cook Islands, ancestors of the Maoris, reach the South Island, New Zealand



AD 1000
MONKS AND INVADERS
c. 1000 Maori people settle in New Zealand
c. 1000 Polynesians begin to build stone temples



AD 1100
1100s First statues erected on previously constructed platforms in Easter Island
1100s Beginnings of organized societies in Hawaiian Islands
1100s Earliest settlements by Polynesians in Pitcairn Island
c. 1150 Maoris begin to settle in the river mouth areas in the north of the South Island, New Zealand, notably at Wairau Bar



AD 1200
CONQUEST AND PLAGUE
c. 1200 Tui Tonga monarchy builds coral platform for ceremonial worship on island of Tonga in South Pacific
c. 1250 Beginnings of intensive valley irrigation schemes in Hawaiian Islands



AD 1300
c. 1300 Hawaiian peoples start to develop class structure as a result of economic growth through agriculture
c. 1300 Stone temple complexes, or “marae”, erected on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and on Moorea Island in the Society Islands
c. 1300 Huge stone statues erected on Easter Island
c. 1350 Maoris flourish in the North Island, New Zealand; first terrace-type fortifications, called “pa”, built



AD 1400
THE EXPANSION OF KNOWLEDGE
c. 1400 Tonga people build major ceremonial centre at Mu'a, on the largest island in the Tongatapu Group, South Pacific Ocean
1400s Widespread cultivation of wet taro in Hawaiian islands



AD 1500
THE GREAT RULERS
c. 1500 A village of oval stone houses is built on Easter Island
c. 1511 Portuguese navigators begin to explore the Pacific
1519-22 Ferdinand Magellan attempts voyage around the world: he navigates the Pacific, but later dies; his crew completes the voyage
1525 Diego Ribeiro, official mapmaker for Spain, makes first scientific charts covering the Pacific
1525 Portuguese probably visit Caroline Islands, northeast of New Guinea, and nearby Palau Islands
1526 Portuguese land on Papua New Guinea
1550s Maoris in both the North and South Islands of New Zealand build fortified enclosures called “pa”
1567 Alvaro de MendaĖa, Spanish sailor, sets sail from Callao in Peru westwards across the Pacific; he reaches the Ellice Islands and Solomon Islands, east of New Guinea; in 1569 he arrives back in Callao
1595 MendaĖa visits Marquesas Islands and then Nderic (Santa Cruz)



AD 1600
COMMERCE AND COLONIES
1600s Beginning of building of “tupa”, stone towers with inner chambers, on Easter Island
c. 1600 In Tonga, dominant political leadership passes from Tu'i Tonga dynasty to Tu'i Konokupolu dynasty
1606 Luis Vaez de Torres from Spain sails around New Guinea and reaches the straits now named after him
1642-44 Abel Tasman reaches Tasmania and New Zealand
1680s Statue building ends on Easter Island; resources and then population decline, and this leads to civil war



AD 1700
THE AGE OF ENQUIRY
1700s First contact between Tahitians and Europeans; they meet in Opunohu Valley on Moorea Island
1722 Dutch navigator Roggeveen reaches Samoa Islands and Easter Island in the Pacific
Mid 1700s Aboriginal culture continues to flourish
1767 British Captain Samuel Wallis is the first European to reach Tahiti; six months later, French navigator Bougainville visits the islands
1768-71 First of British Captain James Cook's three voyages to Pacific
1770 Spanish sailors reach Easter Island
1772-75 Captain Cook's second voyage to the Pacific
1776-79 Cook's third voyage; on his way through the Pacific he lands in Hawaii and is clubbed, or stabbed, to death by islanders Comte la Pérouse, French navigator, leads expedition to Pacific and northwest America; touches Japan; he is lost at sea in 1788
1787-89 Voyage of Lieutenant William Bligh in the Bounty to the Pacific to find breadfruit plants; crew mutiny and put him to sea
1788 First British convicts shipped to Botany Bay, Australia
1790 Bligh returns to England
1793 First free British settlers reach Australia
1798 Strait between mainland Australia and Tasmania navigated by Bass and Flinders
1799 Major civil war in Tonga



AD 1800
INDEPENDENCE AND INDUSTRY
1801-03 Matthew Flinders circumnavigates, then names, Australia; it means “southern”
1810 Kamehameha I becomes king of all Hawaii
1815 Russia tries to make landings in Hawaiian Islands
1819 Pomare II establishes Society Islands' first legal code
1819 Death of Kamehameha I of Hawaii; his heir, Kamehameha II, abolishes system which restricted contact between men and women
1821 Protestant missionaries arrive in Cook Islands
1824 Kamehameha II of Hawaii visits England and dies there
1825 Dutch annexe Irian Jaya, western part of New Guinea
1830 Tahitian Protestant missionaries arrive in Fiji
1830 Malietoa Vaiinupo of Savai'i becomes king of Samoa
1831 Charles Darwin sets out on five-year voyage to Pacific for scientific research
1834 French Catholic missionaries arrive in Mangareva in Tuamotu Islands in South Pacific
1837-40 Frenchman Jules Dumont d'Urville attempts to chart coast of Antarctica; from 1838-42, Lt Charles Wilkes leads US exploring expedition to Antarctica
1837-40 Frenchman Jules Dumont d'Urville attempts to chart coast of Antarctica; from 1838-42, Lt Charles Wilkes leads US exploring expedition to Antarctica
1840 British and Maoris in New Zealand sign Treaty of Waitangi
1840 Kamehameha III begins constitutional monarchy in Hawaii; first written Hawaiian constitution
1842 France annexes the Marquesas Islands and makes Tahiti protectorate
1848 Hawaiian King Kamehameha III gives his people shares in the islands
1850 Britain transfers some powers to the four major Australian colonies; they achieve self-government by 1856
1851 Gold found in southeastern Australia
1853 France annexes New Caledonia
1854 Eureka stockade; brief miners' revolt at Ballarat
1860 R O Burke and W J Wills cross Australia from south to north
1860-70 Second Maori War in New Zealand
1861 Gold discovered in Otago, New Zealand
1864 First French convicts sent to New Caledonia
1865 First Chinese labourers arrive in Hawaii
1865 New Zealand seat of government transferred from Auckland to Wellington
1869 Germany acquires land in Caroline Islands
1870s Gold Rush in New Caledonia
1871 Cakobau, most important leader of Bau, one of Fiji Islands, establishes a national monarchy in Fiji
1874 Prince David Kalakaua becomes ruler of Hawaii (to 1891)
1878 New Caledonian peoples rebel against French
1879 Britain establishes a naval station in Samoa
1880 Australia's most famous bushranger, Ned Kelly, is hanged; becomes a folk hero
1880 France annexes Tahiti as a colony
1885-86 Goldfields opened up in Papua New Guinea
1889 Malietoa Laupepa king of Samoa; is recognized by Britain, United States, and Germany, “jointsupervisors” of Samoa
1893 Votes for women introduced in New Zealand
1897 New Zealand introduces eight-hour working day; old age pensions, 1898
1898 United States annexes Hawaii
1899 Australia and New Zealand troops sent to Boer War



AD 1900
THE WORLD GOES TO WAR
1900 Phosphate-rich Ocean Island annexed by British
1900 New Zealand annexes the Cook Islands
1901 Britain gets control over Tonga's external relations
1901 Commonwealth of Australia formed
1902 Votes for women introduced in Australia
1904 Fijian delegates sit in legislative council for Fiji
1905 British New Guinea becomes the possession of Australia, and is named Papua
1906 Britain and France rule over New Hebrides
1907 New Zealand becomes a dominion
1907 First elections for national assembly in Philippines
1909 Creation of separate Labour party in New Zealand
1910 First victory for Labor party under Andrew Fisher in Australian general election
1911 Universal military training established in New Zealand
1913 Wallis Islands become a French protectorate
1913 Foundation of United Federation of Labour and Social Democratic party in New Zealand
1915 Britain annexes Gilbert and Ellice islands
1916-18 Efforts to introduce national army conscription in Australia defeated in referenda
1917 Filipino National Guard organized in Philippine Islands
1918 Queen Salote becomes queen of Tonga
1918 Influenza epidemic kills one fifth of population of Western Samoa
1919 Dry dock completed at Pearl Harbor in US territory of Hawaii
1920 New Zealand given mandate over Samoa
1920 Formation of a federal Country Party in Australia
1920 New Zealand becomes member of League of Nations
1921 Australia given mandate over German New Guinea
1927 Canberra becomes federal capital of Australia
1929 Uprising of Mau people of Samoa against New Zealand government
1931 Foundation of United Australia Party (UAP)
1933 Australia takes control of large sector of Antarctica
1935 First Labour government elected in New Zealand; many reforms follow
1936 Arbitration court of New Zealand fixes basic wage for man and wife and three children
1937 Formation of New Zealand National Party, in opposition to Labour Party
1939 Robert Menzies becomes Australian prime minister
1941 Japanese attack US fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; United States enters World War II
1942 Naval victory of US fleet over Japanese fleet off Midway Island in the Pacific
1940s Immigration of non-English-speaking Europeans to Australia begins to change national ethnic make-up
1946 United States tests atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in Marshall Islands; continuing US and French nuclear testing on Pacific islands causes massive resentment
1959 The Antarctic Treaty limits exploitation of Antarctica
1962 Western Samoa becomes independent
1970 Tonga and Fiji gain independence from Britain
1975 Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia
1975 Political crisis in Australia as governor-general, appointed by British monarch, controversially dismisses elected government, causing considerable resentment
Mid 1970s Asian immigration to Australia increases sharply; it continues to be high, making Australia more multicultural
1980s Australia and New Zealand go through economic recession; both develop trade links with Asia
1984 New Zealand declared a nuclear-free zone; in 1985 Rainbow Warrior sunk by pro-nuclear agents
1986 Treaty of Rarotonga sets up South Pacific Nuclear-Free Zone



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