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AD 1
17 - 24 Revolt of Tacfarinas, Numidian leader, against Roman government in North Africa
40 Mauretania (now northern Morocco and northwestern Algeria) annexed by Rome
61 - 63 Roman force explores up the Nile Valley into Sudan

AD 100
c. 100 Aksum becomes capital of major state in Eritrea, northern Ethiopia
115 Revolt of Jewish community in Cyrenaica (northeastern Libya) against Roman administration
193 - 211 Libyan Septimius Severus is emperor of Rome

AD 200
c. 200 Roman emperor Septimius Severus strengthens frontier defences in North Africa with chain of forts and long ditches
238 Revolt in Africa against Roman rule begins half-century of unrest
295 - 300 Emperor Diocletian reorganizes local government in North Africa

AD 300
c. 300 - 400 Bantu cereal cultivators in southeast Africa begin to herd cattle
c. 330 - 40 Beginning of conversion of kingdom of Aksum in Ethiopia-Eritrea to Christianity, by Bishop Frumentius
c. 350 End of Kushite civilization at Meroe; it is possibly brought down by invasion from kingdom of Aksum
c. 397 Berber prince Gildo begins a major rebellion against Roman emperor Honorius

AD 400
c. 400 Use of iron spreads through eastern Africa
400s Christianity in the Aksum empire in northeastern Africa becomes more widespread

AD 500
c. 500 The Ghanaian empire becomes the most important power in West Africa
525 King Kaleb of Aksum conquers Yemen in southern Arabia; he builds many churches
c. 550 - 600 Nubians in Sudan, northeastern Africa, become Christian

AD 600
640 - 41 Caliph Omar, a successor to Mohammed as Islamic leader, conquers Egypt
c. 640 - 711 Arabs, carrying the Muslim faith, expand across northern Africa
642 Arabs erect first mosque in al-Fustat, new capital of Muslim Egypt
652 Christian Nubians and Arabs in Egypt agree that Aswan on Nile should mark southern limit of Arab expansion
697 - 98 Arabs destroy Byzantine city at Carthage in North Africa; new city of Tunis built nearby

AD 700
c. 788 Idris, Arab chief, becomes ruler in Morocco

AD 800
800 - 909 Aghlabid dynasty rules in Tunis on the coast of North Africa; the rulers set up a colony in Sicily (827 - 902) and invade southern Italy
c. 800 - c. 950 Christian empire in Ethiopia continues after the decline of Aksum
800s Arabs and Persians explore East African coast and set up trading stations at Malindi, Mombasa, Kilwa, and Mogadishu
868 Ahmad ibn-Tulun, Egyptian noble of Turkish descent, breaks away from Abbasid caliphate and sets up Tulunid dynasty in Egypt

AD 900
c. 900 Kasar Hausa (Hausaland), a fertile region on the lower Niger river in West Africa, prospers due to increasing trade and industry
c. 950 - 1050 Igbo-Ukwu culture thrives in eastern Nigeria
969 Fatimid dynasty expands from Tunis and conquers Egypt from Tulunid dynasty; Fatimids build Cairo which becomes Egyptian capital
970s Fatimids built al-Azhar University in Cairo, one of the world's first universities; it still exists today

AD 1000
1000s Bantu-speaking peoples set up kingdoms in southern Africa
1000s Kingdoms of Takrur and Gao flourish in West Africa due to gold trade
1021 - 35 Reign of Fatimid caliph al-Zahir marks start of decline of Fatimid power
c. 1050s Culture of Yoruba people of Ife flourishes in Nigeria in West Africa; it survives until
1050s - 1146 Almoravids, Berber Muslims from western Sahara, take over Morocco, Algeria, and part of Muslim Spain; they invade Ghana in 1076, and establish power there
1062 Almoravids found capital at Marrakech

AD 1100
c. 1100 Ghana empire in West Africa declines
c. 1100 Katanga in Zaire central Africa probably founded
1147 Almohads, Berber Muslims opposed to Almoravids, seize Marrakech and go on to conquer Almoravid Spain, Algeria, and Tripoli
1150s Zagwe dynasty rules in Ethiopian highlands
1171 Saladin, Muslim warrior and commander in Egyptian army, overthrows Fatimid dynasty
1173 Saladin declares himself sultan of Egypt

AD 1200
C. 1200 - 30 King Lalibela of Ethiopia responsible for churches cut from rock
1218 Ayyubid empire breaks up but Ayyubids rule Egypt to 1250
c. 1220 City state of Kilwa in Tanzania increases in prosperity
c. 1230 Hafsid monarchy takes over from Almohads in Tunisia and acquires much trade across the Sahara desert
c. 1235 Great warrior leader Sun Diata founds Mali empire in West Africa; it expands under his rule
c. 1250 Kanem kingdom in Lake Chad region begins to break up into rival factions
1250 Last Ayyubid ruler in Egypt murdered; Mamluks, soldiers from central Asia employed by Ayyubids, seize power and found military state
1260 - 77 Mamluk commander Baybars takes over as sultan of Egypt

AD 1300
1300 Ife culture of West Africa produces famous brasses
1324 Emperor of Mali, Mansa Musa, goes on a pilgrimage to Mecca, Arabia
1348 Egypt devastated by plague, called Black Death
1352 - 53 Ibn Battuta, Berber scholar, travels across Africa and writes an account of all he sees
c. 1380s Foundation of Kongo kingdom in Congo river-mouth region of Zaire, central Africa

AD 1400
c. 1400 Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa thrives on gold trade
1400s Gold from mines in Zimbabwe is exported to Asia via Sofala on the east coast
c. 1400 Engaruka community farms land in Tanzania
c. 1420 Portuguese sailors begin to explore west coast of Africa
1420s Songhai people in Gao region, West Africa, begin raids on Mali empire
c. 1430 Sultans of Kilwa on east African coast begin grand building programme
1434 - 68 Reign of Christian emperor Zera Yacub in Ethiopia; he expands church and promotes great monasteries
c. 1450 Building at Great Zimbabwe, southern Africa, at its height
1462 Sonni Ali becomes ruler of the Songhai and goes on to build an empire
1482 Portuguese explore Congo river estuary
1491 Ruler of Congo kingdom baptized as Christian by Portuguese

AD 1500
1500s Songhai empire in West Africa enters period of greatest expansion and power under Askia Mohammed Turré
1500s Trade encourages growth of Hausa states in West Africa
1505-07 Portuguese capture Sofala on east coast and found Mozambique; they begin to trade with Africans
1507 Nzinga Mbemba, Christian and Portuguese ally, becomes king of Kongo kingdom in central Africa
1517 Ottomans defeat Mamluks and conquer Egypt
1529 Muslims defeat Christian Ethiopian forces at the Battle of Shimbra Kure and overrun the kingdom until 1543, when Portuguese troops help to defeat them
c. 1530 Beginning of trans-Atlantic slave trade organized by Portuguese
1560s First Portuguese embassies in Timbuktu, West Africa
1562 Sir John Hawkins starts English slave trade, taking cargoes of slaves from West Africa to the Americas
c. 1570 - c. 1610 Kanem-Bornu kingdom in western Central Africa at its most powerful; alliance with the Ottomans brings it firearms, military training, and Arab camel troops
c. 1575 Portuguese begin to colonize Angola; more than a century of warfare follows
1590-91 Songhai empire overthrown by Moroccan army
c. 1598 First Dutch trade posts set up on Guinea coast, West Africa

AD 1600
1600s Kalonga kingdom, north of Zambezi river, becomes rich through ivory trade
1600s Hausaland dominates trade routes to Sahara
1600s Great Zimbabwe replaced by several regional capitals in Transvaal, Botswana, and Zimbabwe
1620s Queen Nzinga of Ndongo fights Portuguese in Angola
1650s Portuguese clash with Muslims in Zambezi region
c. 1650 Ethiopia expels Portuguese missionaries and diplomats
1652 Dutch found Cape Town in South Africa
1660s Mawlay-al-Rashid restores sultanate of Morocco
1670s French settle in Senegal
1670s Fulani pastoralist people gain control of Bondu in southern Senegal
1680s Rise of Asante kingdom in West Africa
1680s Butua kingdom flourishes in Zimbabwe plains; Portuguese are driven into Zambezi valley, and also eastwards
1686 Louis XIV of France officially annexes Madagascar
1698 Portuguese expelled from Mombasa on eastern coast

AD 1700
1701 Osei Tutu creates free Asante nation in West Africa
c. 1705 Bey (army commander) Husain ibn Ali founds dynasty at Tunis in North Africa
c. 1705 Kongo prophetess, Dona Beatrice, founds new religious cult and helps to end civil war
1710 Dey (military leader) becomes pasha in Algiers, controlling northern Algeria
1714 France captures the island of Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean
1720s Yoruba state of Oyo still dominates region west of the Niger river in West Africa
1722 -23 Asante conquer kingdom of Bono-Mansu north of the forest area of Akan region of West Africa
1724-34 King Agaja of Dahomey in West Africa temporarily disrupts slave trade; it is reintroduced in the 1740s
c. 1725 Fulani Muslim cleric Alfa Ibrahim appointed ³Commander of the Faithful² in Futa Jalon in West Africa
1727 Death of Mulai Ismail followed by 30 years of anarchy in Morocco
1740s The Lunda create prosperous new kingdom
1746 Mazrui dynasty in Mombasa, East Africa, becomes independent from Oman
1755 The first outbreak of smallpox, brought by sailors, in Cape Town, South Africa, spreads rapidly inland; it kills many Khoisan hunters and herders
1764-77 Reign of Osei Kwadwo, Asante ruler, in West Africa
1768-73 Scottish explorer James Bruce travels in Ethiopia
1768 Ali Bey, a Mamluk army officer, makes himself ruler of Egypt
1770s Tukolor kingdom gains power in former Songhai region of West Africa
1773 Ali Bey dies a week after being wounded in a battle with rebels led by Abu'l-Dhahab
1777 Sidi Mohammed, ruler of Morocco (1757-90), abolishes Christian slavery
1779 Dutch farmers in Cape Colony clash with organized Xhosa resistance
1781 Militant Tijaniyya Islamic order set up in Algeria
1785 Omani rulers reassert influence in Zanzibar
1787 Tuaregs, nomads in Sahara, abolish Moroccan pashalik of Timbuktu
c. 1788 Usuman dan Fodio, a Fulani cleric, stirs holy war against a Hausa king
1788 African Association founded in England to explore interior of Africa
1795 British seize Cape Colony from Dutch for the first time
1795-96 Scottish explorer Mungo Park travels through Gambia and reaches Niger

AD 1800
1804 Fulani begin jihad (holy war) in northern Nigeria
1805-06 Mungo Park explores Niger river, West Africa
1805-48 Mohammed Ali rules Egypt; Egypt breaks away from Ottoman empire
1807 Asante invade Fante confederacy of states
1808 Fulani invade Bornu near Lake Chad
1814 Cape Colony in south Africa formally ceded to Britain by Netherlands
c. 1816-28 Career of Zulu ruler Shaka in South Africa
c. 1820 Fulani emirate founded in Adamawa, West Africa
1820-64 Fulani in Mali, West Africa, found and rule Hamdallahi caliphate
1822 Liberia founded in West Africa as home for freed slaves
1825 Egyptians found the city of Khartoum in Sudan
1828 Basel mission to Ghana (then called Gold Coast), West Africa
1828 Shaka, Zulu ruler, assassinated by his half-brother Dingane who takes over as ruler of Zulu nation
1830 French invade Algeria; they gradually occupy the country
1832-47 Abd-al-Kadir leads Arab resistance to France in Algeria
1836-37 The Great Trek of Boers (Dutch farmers) away from British in South Africa; they fond the Republic of Natal in 1838 and the Orange Free State in 1854
1840 Imam Sayyid Said, ruler of Oman (1806-56), makes Zanzibar, a small island off the east African coast, his capital
1843 Britain takes over Natal from the Boers as a British colony
1852 Tukolor leader al-Hajj 'Umar launches jihad along Senegal and upper Niger rivers to establish Islamic state
1852 In South Africa, Britain recognizes Transvaal's independence
1853-56 Dr David Livingstone crosses Africa; follows course of Zambezi river, reaches Victoria Falls
1855-68 Reign of Emperor Theodore of Ethiopia
1863 Al-Hajj 'Umar takes Timbuktu
1865-68 Wars between Orange Free State and Moshweshwe's Basuto people, in South Africa
1867 Diamonds discovered at Kimberley at South Africa
1869 Suez Canal opened
1872 Cape Colony in South Africa granted self-government by Britain
1873-74 War between Asante kingdom and Britain
1874 Beginnings of Mande state in old Mali under Samori Turé
1879 Zulu war with British; British defeated at Isandlwana but victorious at Ulundi
c. 1880 Beginning of the European ³Scramble for Africa²
1880-81 First Boer War, Transvaal defeats Britain
1885 Conference in Berlin on Scramble for Africa
1885 in Sudan, Muslim leader, the Mahdi, takes Khartoum from Egypt; General Gordon killed
1886 Gold found in Transvaal
1894 French set up protectorate in Dahomey (Benin), West Africa
1895-96 Jameson Raid into Transvaal
1896 France takes Madagascar
1896 Ethiopian ruler Menelik crushes Italian army at Adowa
1897 Slavery banned in Zanzibar
1899-1902 Second Boer War in South Africa

AD 1900
1900 Buganda, East Africa, is ruled by the kabaka, or king, with British advice
1900-01 Rising in Asante, West Africa; Britain annexes Asante
1902 Treaty of Verceniging ends second Boer War in South Africa; defeated Boers remain bitter and determined to regain power
1903 Sokoto caliphate in Hausaland taken over by Britain
1904 French create federation of French West Africa
1905 Kaiser William II of Germany visits Tangier and provokes crisis with France
1905 Maji-Maji rebellion begins in Tanzania (German East Africa)
1906 Tripartite pact (Britain, France, Italy)seeks to preserve integrity of Ethiopia
1907 Government of Mozambique organized
1908 Belgium takes over Congo Free State
1909 Franco-German agreement reached on Morocco
1909 Liberia calls on United States for financial assistance
1910 Union of South Africa
1912 New loans to Liberia coupled with US control over customs revenue
1912 French make Morocco a protectorate at Treaty of Fez
1913 South African government introduces laws to reserve 87 per cent of land for whites
1914 Britain and France occupy German colonies in West Africa
1916 Boer leader Jan Smuts leads an anti-German drive from Kenya into Tanzania (German East Africa)
1916 British and Belgian troops take Yaounde, the capital of the German Cameroons
1917 Ras Tafari (later, Haile Selassie) becomes regent of Ethiopia
1917 German forces in German East Africa withstand British and Portuguese at Mahiwa; Germans withdraw into Mozambique
1919 ANC demonstrates against pass laws in Transvaal
1920s More British and Indians settle Kenya
1921-26 Abd-el-Krim leads Berbers and Arabs against Europeans in North Africa
1922 Egypt becomes independent from Britain under King Fuad
1923 Ethiopia admitted to League of Nations
1930 White women given the vote in South Africa
1930 Ras Tafari crowned emperor of Ethiopia, and takes name Haile Selassie
1931 First trans-African railway completed, from Angola to Mozambique
1934-36 British colonial government of Ghana suppresses radical African critics
1936 Representation of Natives Act denies black South Africans any chance of political equality
1935-36 Italians under Mussolini invade and annex Ethiopia
1939 South Africa declares war on Germany at start of World War II
1941 German army under Rommel attacks British in North Africa
1941 Ethiopia liberated from Italians by Ethiopians and British, and recognized as independent
1942 British defeat German army at Battle of El Alamein in Egypt
1943 Germans and Italians driven from North Africa
1948 Afrikaner National Party wins power in South Africa
1951 Libya gains independence
1952-59 Mau-Mau guerrilla war against British in Kenya
1954-62 War for independence in Algeria; freedom won in 1962
1954-70 Colonel Nasser rules Egypt; revolutionary changes
1956 Suez crisis; Britain and France attempt to regain control of Suez canal from Egypt, but fail
1956 Morocco, Tunisia, and Sudan gain their independence
1957 Ghana is first country in sub-Saharan Africa to become independent
1958-60 Independence for Zaire, Nigeria, Somalia, and 12 of France's 13 sub-Saharan colonies
1960s Civil war in south Sudan
1960-65 Civil war in Zaire, formerly Belgian Congo
1961-67 Independence for Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi, Zambia, Lesotho, Botswana, Gambia, and Swaziland
1963 Organization of African Unity founded
1965 White regime in Zimbabwe declares independence
1967-70 Biafran War, Nigeria
1970s Severe droughts in northeastern Africa and the lands on the southern edge of the Sahara
1974 Nigeria becomes leading oil producer in Africa
1974-91 Revolutionary regime in Ethiopia; civil war spreads
1974-75 Portuguese colonies gain independence after long struggle
1976 African schoolchildren spark uprisings in Soweto in South Africa
1980 Zimbabwe gains independence after guerrilla war
1983- Conflict in Sudan; more than 1.5 million people die
1983- African countries adopt IMF (International Monetary Fund) plans for managing their economies
1989- Zambia and other countries see changes of government by democratic election
1990 Namibia gets independence
1990 Nelson Mandela freed in South Africa; process of dismantling apartheid begins
1993 Eritrea (in north Ethiopia) breaks from Ethiopia; first successful secession in post-colonial Africa
1994 African National Congress (ANC) wins first multi-racial election ever held in South Africa

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