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Edward I (1239-1307) came to the English throne in 1272, succeeding his father Henry III. He annexed Wales, but fought unsuccessfully to win control over Scotland. Edward was a vigorous law reformer, introducing compulsory trial by jury for criminal cases and limiting the power of courts run by the Church. He was the first king to call regular parliaments, summoning knights and burgesses from English shires and towns to a Model Parliament in 1295.
In 1283 he defeated and killed Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and also executed Llewellyn's brother David. The English conquest of Wales was complete and Edward I ordered the building of Caernarvon castle.
In 1291 the Scots acknowledged Edward I as their sovereign; he arbitrated in the succession dispute. In 1292 he nominated John Balliol as Scotland's king. But in 1296 Balliol defied Edward, who at once invaded Scotland and ruled himself. An uprising against the English occurred in 1297, led by William Wallace. He defeats an English army at the battle of Stirling. The following year Edward defeated Wallace at the battle of Falkirk and reconquered Scotland.
In 1301 Edward invested his baby son, Edward, as prince of Wales. In 1307 Edward I died marching north to crush Robert of Scotland, and his son Edward II became king.
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