The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers' connection with the Tower goes back to Monmouth's rebellion in 1685. The regiment was raised, and posted by the Constable, George Legge, Lord Dartmouth to the Tower to protect the guns. It was the first regiment to be issued with an improved musket known as a Fusil. In King James II's commission to Lord Dartmouth, he referred to the regiment as 'Our Royal Regiment of Fusiliers' and the name has stayed with it to this day although a short while after its formation the regiment adopted the shorter title of 'The Royal Fusiliers'. In 1881 it was granted the honour of the additional title 'City of London Regiment'.
The Protestant Duke of Monmouth, Charles II's illegitimate son, had landed in Dorset in an attempt to take the throne from his uncle, the Catholic King James II. Defeated at Sedgemoor and imprisoned in the Bell Tower he was executed on Tower Hill. A story goes that his portrait which now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery was painted after his execution.
Built as the Officers' Mess in the mid nineteenth century, this building now houses the Regimental Headquarters and Museum. (There is a small admission charge for this building).